【日英対訳】京都の歴史 History of Kyoto

Before Kyoto became the capital of Japan, a place called Nara was the capital.

The emperor wished to move the capital somewhere outside Nara because he thought the Buddhist temples had too much political influence, and wanted to separate the politics from religions.

So about 1200 years ago, they found a large empty lot with a lot of water only 40 km north of Nara and built the capital. That was the beginning of Kyoto.

The geography of Kyoto is a basin, which makes the place hot in summer and cold in winter.

Architects at that time developed housing technologies where the houses were airy in summer and warm in winter, which modern architects still use as reference.
当時の建築家は、夏は風通しがよく、冬は暖かい家を作る技術を作りました。 この技術は現在の建築家も参考にしています。

Kyoto wasn’t always a peaceful place. About 850 years ago, battles between the imperial family members and aristocrats, and armed clans who were hired by them ruined the place.
京都はいつも平和だったわけではありません。 850年前、皇室の人達、貴族、そして彼らに雇われた豪族たちの戦い(保元の乱・平治の乱)があり、京都を傷めました。

One of the clans, Taira, began ruling the country and actually moved the capital to Kobe. Kyoto became empty. 
その中の一豪族、平家が国を治めることとなり、首都を神戸に移しました。 京都はカラになりました。

The Emperor went back to Kyoto shortly afterward though the political capital was founded in Kamakura, about 60 km from Tokyo, by a clan called Genji who had defeated Taira.

About 700 years ago, a clan called Ashikaga founded their political capital right in Kyoto, which made Kyoto once again a fancy city.

600 years ago, a civil war began in Kyoto. The leader’s wife aided both of the armies and turned Kyoto into ruins. This city civil war triggered the 100-year nation-wide civil war era of Japan.
600年前、京都で内戦が始まりました。 将軍の妻(日野富子)は、両方の軍に援助をし、京都を廃墟にしました。 この都市の内戦が、100年間の戦国時代の引き金を引くことになりました。

Japan was unified by a man called Toyotomi Hideyoshi and he decided to rebuild Kyoto. Kyoto once again became a fancy city. The peaceful period of Kyoto lasted about 250 years.
豊臣秀吉は日本を統一し、京都を再建することにしました。 京都は再度美しい都市になりました。 京都の平和は250年続きました。

At the end of Edo Era, again there was a large battle (Battle of Kimmon) between the regime and the radicals who would be the leaders of the New Japanese government later. The regime won this battle, but Kyoto was burnt down.
江戸時代末期、で、幕府と後の新政府のリーダーとなる急進派の大きな戦いがありました(禁門の変(蛤御門の変))。 この戦いでは幕府が勝ちましたが、京都は焼けてしまいました。

The New Government decided to rebuild Kyoto and make it as a place to attract tourists including foreigners.

Because of the rapid growth of population, the government decided to build huge canals to bring water from a lake in another prefecture. The government and local people did whatever it took to keep the city beautiful.
急激な人口増加により、政府は琵琶湖から水を引くため、巨大な運河を作ることにしました。 政府と現地の人達は、京都を美しく保つためにどんな事でもしたのです。

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